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AK2 / Adenylate kinase 2  단백질

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AK2 / Adenylate kinase 2 요약 및 단백질 정보

AK2 / Adenylate kinase 2 배경

유전자 요약: Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Isozyme 2 is localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and may play a role in apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of reticular dysgenesis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
General information above from NCBI
촉매 활성: ATP + AMP = 2 ADP.
하부단위 구조: Monomer (By similarity).
도메인: Consists of three domains, a large central CORE domain and two small peripheral domains, NMPbind and LID, which undergo movements during catalysis. The LID domain closes over the site of phosphoryl transfer upon ATP binding. Assembling and dissambling the active center during each catalytic cycle provides an effective means to prevent ATP hydrolysis.
세포하 위치: Mitochondrion intermembrane space.
조직 특이성: Present in most tissues. Present at high level in heart, liver and kidney, and at low level in brain, skeletal muscle and skin. Present in thrombocytes but not in erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria. Present in all nucleated cell populations from blood, while AK1 is mostly absent. In spleen and lymph nodes, mononuclear cells lack AK1, whereas AK2 is readily detectable. These results indicate that leukocytes may be susceptible to defects caused by the lack of AK2, as they do not express AK1 in sufficient amounts to compensate for the AK2 functional deficits (at protein level).
질병과의 관련성: Reticular dysgenesis (RDYS) [MIM:267500]: Most severe form of inborn severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) and is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth. In bone marrow of individuals with reticular dysgenesis, myeloid differentiation is blocked at the promyelocytic stage, whereas erythro- and megakaryocytic maturation is generally normal. In addition, affected newborns have bilateral sensorineural deafness. Defects may be due to its absence in leukocytes and inner ear, in which its absence can not be compensated by AK1. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
염기서열 유사성: Belongs to the adenylate kinase family. AK2 subfamily.C
General information above from UniProt

Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) belongs to the Adenylate kinase family that contains three isozymes: AK1, AK2 and AK3. Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. Adenylate kinase2 (AK2) is expressed in mitochondrial intermembrane space. It may play a role in apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that in apoptotic cells AK2 was translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochronme C. Mutations in this gene are the cause of reticular dysgenesis. These mutations result in absent or strongly decreased protein expression. It has been also established that AK2 is specifically expressed in the stria vascularis region of the inner ear, which provides an explanation of the sensorineural deafness in these individuals. 

AK2 / Adenylate kinase 2 대체 이름

ADK2,AK2, [homo-sapiens]
ADK2,AK2, [human]
D4Ertd220e,Ak-2,RP23-269B7.5, [mouse]
Ak-2,D4Ertd220e, [mus-musculus]

AK2 / Adenylate kinase 2 관련 연구

  • Lagresle-Peyrou C, et al. (2008) Human adenylate kinase 2 deficiency causes a profound hematopoietic defect associated with sensorineural deafness. Nature Genetics. 41: 106-11.
  • Bruns GA, et al. (1977) Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme. Biochem Genet. 15 (5-6): 477-86.
  • Khler C, et al. (1999) Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 447 (1): 10-2.
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