Receptor for Advanced Glycosylation End Products (RAGE, or AGER) is a member of the immunoglobulin super-family transmembrane proteins, as a signal transduction receptor which binds advanced glycation endproducts, certain members of the S100/calgranulin family of proteins, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), advanced oxidation protein products, and amyloid (beta-sheet fibrils). Initial studies investigating the role of RAGE in renal dysfunction focused on diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. However, RAGE also has roles in the pathogenesis of renal disorders that are not associated with diabetes, such as obesity-related glomerulopathy, doxorubicin-induced nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, lupus nephritis, renal amyloidosis, and ischemic renal injuries. RAGE represents an important factor in innate immunity against pathogens, but it also interacts with endogenous ligands, resulting in chronic inflammation. RAGE signaling has been implicated in multiple human illnesses, including atherosclerosis, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and aging associated diseases.
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