Two non receptor tyrosine kinases, ABL1 and ABL2, belong to ABL kinase family. Both kinases not only share overlapping biological functions but also have unique roles in cellular processes. Results from knock-out mice have supported their redundant functions. ABL1 and ABL2 double knock-out mice are embryonic lethal, which suggests and crucial role of ABL kinase family in development.
Both ABL family kinases contain a SH2 and SH3 domain at the N-terminus, which are followed by the catalytic kinase domain. A conserved F-actin binding domain is located the carboxyl terminus of ABL1 and ABL2. Since ABL1 has three nuclear localization signal and one nuclear export signal, ABL1 is located in both nucleus and cytoplasm. However, due to the absence of nuclear localization signal, ABL2 is primarily located to the cytoplasm.
The activities of ABL family kinases are tightly regulated. SH2 and SH3 domain negatively regulate ABL kinase activity through binding between SH3 and polyproline-containing linker sequences. Generation of BCR-ABL1 fusion caused by chromosome translocation leads to constitutive kinase activity.
|ABL Kinase list|
|c-Abl/ABL1||ARG1/Arginase 1||ARG2/Arginase II|