유전자 요약: The ABL1 protooncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. Activity of c-Abl protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. The t translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR and c-Abl genes present in many cases of chronic myelogeneous leukemia. The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed c-Abl tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for c-Abl. The ABL1 gene is expressed as either a 6- or 7-kb mRNA transcript, with alternatively spliced first exons spliced to the common exons 2-11.General information above from NCBI
촉매 활성: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
보조 인자: Magnesium or manganese.
효소 조절: Stabilized in the inactive form by an association between the SH3 domain and the SH2-TK linker region, interactions of the N-terminal cap, and contributions from an N- terminal myristoyl group and phospholipids. Activated by autophosphorylation as well as by SRC-family kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Activated by RIN1 binding to the SH2 and SH3 domains. Also stimulated by cell death inducers and DNA-damage. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a highly abundant phosphoinositide known to regulate cytoskeletal and membrane proteins, inhibits also the tyrosine kinase activity (By similarity). Inhibited by ABI1, whose activity is controlled by ABL1 itself through tyrosine phosphorylation. Also inhibited by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) which is used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and by VX-680, an inhibitor that acts also on imatinib-resistant mutants.
하부단위 구조: Interacts with SORBS1 following insulin stimulation. Found in a trimolecular complex containing CDK5 and CABLES1. Interacts with CABLES1 and PSTPIP1. Interacts with ZDHHC16, ITGB1 and HCK (By similarity). Interacts with STX17; probably phosphorylates STX17. Interacts with INPPL1/SHIP2. Interacts with the 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAB, YWHAE, YWHAG, YWHAH, SFN AND YWHAZ; the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins requires phosphorylation on Thr-735 and, sequesters ABL1 into the cytoplasm. Interacts with ABI1, ABI2, BCR, CRK, FGR, FYN, HCK, LYN, PSMA7 RAD9A, RAD51, RAD52, TP73 and WASF3. A complex made of ABL1, CTTN and MYLK regulates cortical actin-based cytoskeletal rearrangement critical to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement. Interacts (via SH3 domain) with CASP9; the interaction is direct and increases in the response of cells to genotoxic stress and ABL1/c-Abl activation.
세포하 위치: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Nucleus. Mitochondrion (By similarity). Note=Shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm depending on environmental signals. Sequestered into the cytoplasm through interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Localizes to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress (By similarity).
Isoform IB: Nucleus membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=The myristoylated c-ABL protein is reported to be nuclear.
조직 특이성: Widely expressed.
번역 후: Acetylated at Lys-711 by EP300 which promotes the cytoplasmic translocation.
Phosphorylation at Tyr-70 by members of the SRC family of kinases disrupts SH3 domain-based autoinhibitory interactions and intermolecular associations, such as that with ABI1, and also enhances kinase activity. Phosphorylation at Tyr-226 and Tyr-393 correlate with increased activity. DNA damage-induced activation of ABL1 requires the function of ATM and Ser-446 phosphorylation (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-569 has been attributed to a CDC2-associated kinase and is coupled to cell division (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-618 and Ser-619 by PAK2 increases binding to CRK and reduces binding to ABI1. Phosphorylation on Thr-735 is required for binding 14-3-3 proteins for cytoplasmic translocation. Phosphorylated by PRKDC (By similarity).
Polyubiquitinated. Polyubiquitination of ABL1 leads to degradation.
Isoform IB is myristoylated on Gly-2.
질병과의 관련성: Leukemia, chronic myeloid (CML) [MIM:608232]: A clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell with a specific cytogenetic abnormality, the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), involving myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic, B lymphoid, and sometimes T lymphoid cells, but not marrow fibroblasts. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis.
Note=A chromosomal aberration involving ABL1 has been found in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) with BCR. The translocation produces a BCR-ABL found also in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
염기서열 유사성: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. ABL subfamily.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Contains 1 SH2 domain.
Contains 1 SH3 domain.
General information above from UniProt