Cytokines & Growth Factors

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Cytokines & Growth Factors Featured Sections

Cytokines & Growth Factors Related Pathways

TGF-beta Signaling Pathway

  • • TGF-beta signaling is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival/or apoptosis of many cells, including glioma cells.
  • • TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines bind to receptors at the cell surface, and recruit two type I receptors and two type II receptors forming a tetrameric complex.

VEGF Signaling Pathway

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) constitute a sub-family of growth factors that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factors are important signaling proteins involved in both vasculogenesis (the de novo formation of the embryonic circulatory system) and angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature).

TNF Signaling Pathway

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines activate signaling pathways for cell survival, death, and differentiation. Members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily act through ligand-mediated trimerization, causing recruitment of several intracellular adaptors to activate multiple signal transduction pathway

EGFR Signaling Pathway

EGF (epidermal growth factor) is the founding member of the EGF family of proteins, which also include Amphiregulin (AREG), Betacellulin (BTC), Epiregulin (EPR), HB-EGF, Neuregulins, and others. Members of epidermal growth factor family have highly similar structural and functional characteristics.

Canonical wnt Signaling Pathway

Wnt pathways are involved in the control of gene expression, cell behavior, cell adhesion, and cell polarity. The Canonical (β-Catenin-Dependent) Wnt Signaling pathway is the best studied of the Wnt pathways and is highly conserved through evolution.

Death receptor Signaling Pathway

Death receptors are cell surface receptors that transmit apoptotic signals initiated by specific ligands and play a central role in instructive apoptosis. Death receptors belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) gene superfamily.

Notch Signaling Pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the regulation of many fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, stem cell maintenance and differentiation during embryonic and adult development.

Cytokines & Growth Factors Reference

• Burgess A W. Growth factors and cytokines[J]. Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 2015.
• Akdis M, et al. Interleukins, from 1 to 37, and interferon-γ: receptors, functions, and roles in diseases[J]. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2011, 127(3): 701-721. e70.
• Comerford I, McColl S R. Mini-review series: focus on chemokines[J]. Immunology and cell biology, 2011, 89(2): 183.