Cytokines are produced by diverse sources of immune and nonimmune cells and form a highly complex network or ‘cytokine universe’ that is essential for immune system homeostasis. When immune tolerance is broken in autoimmune pathologies, the equilibrium of the cytokine milieu is lost in disease target tissues, shifting the local environment towards a proinflammatory state and resulting in tissue damage. Targeting cytokines and their receptors with monoclonal antibodies has become a mainstream therapeutic approach for autoimmune disorders.
Here the main autoimmune disease drug targets were listed included in cytokines and growth factors. And quality reagents to facilitate your research are available here
Fractalkine/CX3CL1 plays a dual role in Rheumatoid Arthritis: 1) acting as a chemotactic agent for monocytes and lymphocytes, and 2) as a cellular adhesion molecule. High ratio of macrophages within Rheumatoid Arthritis synovium express the CX3CR1 receptor, suggesting fractalkine/CX3CL1 participates in the development of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
BAFF, through its interaction with BAFF-R, is required for survival of late transitional, marginal zone and mature naive B cells, all of which are depleted by BAFF blockade. Increased serum levels of BAFF are found in a number of different autoimmune diseases, and BAFF is found in inflammatory sites in which there is lymphoid neogenesis.
Recent evidence revealed that GM-CSF played critical roles in the development of many autoimmune diseases. GM-CSF depletion or neutralization suppresses many autoimmune disease models, including EAE, arthritis, arthritis-related interstitial lung disease, nephritis, or psoriasis.
Excessive or continuous IL-6 production plays a pathological role in an acute severe life-threatening complication, the so-called cytokine storm, and in various chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases. IL-6 targeting was evaluated as a novel therapeutic strategy against these diseases.
IL-17 exerts various biologic functions in vivo, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of inflammatory disorders. Many findings provide evidence for the role of IL-17 in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease and suggest the potential value of targeting this cytokine.
IL-23 has been implicated in several autoimmune inflammatory disorders such as colitis, gastritis, psoriasis and arthritis, and as a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine, with close resemblance to IL-12. The inhibition of IL-23 might be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy
TNF-α has been described as a proinflammatory cytokine associated with certain autoimmune diseases. Under the presumption that excess TNF-α causes deleterious effects, several anti-TNF therapies have been designed to treat autoimmune diseases.
Recent reports have shown that the serum and/or the tissue expressions of CXCL10 are increased in organ specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD), and type 1 diabetes (T1D), or systemic rheumatological disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA)……
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