Adiponectin (ADIPOQ), or 3 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein (Acrp3) is a protein secreted by adipose tissue, which acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Unlike other adipocytokines produced by adipose tissue, adiponectin appears to have anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-atherogenic properties. Several clinical studies demonstrate the inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and several inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein. Adiponectin attenuates inflammatory responses to multiple stimuli by modulating signaling pathways in a variety of cell types. The anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin may be a major component of its beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Additionally, it is important factor in chronic liver diseases and chronic kidney diseases. Some cancer cell types express adiponectin receptors. Thus Adiponectin may act on tumour cells directly by binding and activating adiponectin receptors and downstream signalling pathways.