Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are growth factors that induce the clonal growth of hematopoietic progenitors. All CSFs control myeloid cell numbers, but each has a level of specificity to its target cells and effects. There is a growing interest in targeting these CSFs in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, as well as cancer.
The CSF family includes:
• Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF/CSF1): Binds to the homodimeric CSF1 receptor (CSF1R/CD115) to regulate the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function of myeloid lineage cells. Alterations in CSF1R/CD115 have been associated with cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
• Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF/CSF2): Binds to the GM‑CSF receptor (GM-CSFR/CD116), which consists of a unique α‑chain (CSF2RA) and the common β subunit (CSF2RB/CD131), to stimulate the maturation of stem cells and the differentiation of granulocytes and monocytes.
• Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF/CSF3): Binds to the homodimeric G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR/CD114) to stimulate all cells in the granulocyte lineage. It has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia, bone marrow transplants, and neutropenia.
• Multiple colony-stimulating factor or interleukin 3 (IL-3): Binds to the IL-3 receptor (IL-3R) that consists of a unique α‑chain (IL3RA) paired with the common β subunit (CD131). The common beta subunit is shared with GM-CSF and IL-5 receptors. IL-3 stimulates the growth of immature progenitor cells of all myeloid lineages. It has been associated with autoimmune diseases.
Sino Biological has developed high activity CSF ligand and receptor proteins from various species to help study the biology of CSFs and receptors. We have also developed different functional isoforms for them.
Sino Biological has developed a comprehensive panel of antibodies targeting CSF growth factors and receptors, which can be used in FCM, ELISA, and WB. Human and mouse CSF ELISA kits and ELISA pair sets are also available.