The Cluster of Differentiation 31 (CD31) adhesion molecule, also known as platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), is the only known member of the CAM family on platelets. CD31 protein is a 13-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and certain T cell subsets. CD31 protein is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, and histiocytic malignancies. CD31 plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils and tissue regeneration. CD31 protein mediates the homotypic or heterotypic cell adhesion by binding to itself or the leukocyte integrin αvβ3, and thus plays a role in neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses, transendothelial migration of leukocytes, as well as in cardiovascular development.
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