Fc receptor is a antibody receptor involved in antigen recognition which is located at the membrane of certain immune cells including B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells. Such receptors recognize Fc fragment of antibodies and that is the name of Fc receptor derived from. Fc receptors binding to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens contributes to the protective functions of the immune system.Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
There are several types of Fc receptors dpending on the kind of antibody that they recognize. Fc receptors recognizing fc portion of IgG is called Fc gamma receptor (FcγR). Fc receptor recognizing C-terminal of IgA is called Fc alapha receptor (FcαR). Fc receptor recognizing C-terminal of IgE is called Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR).
Fc alpha receptor (FcαR) is the receptor specific for IgA which binds IgA with low affinity. There is only one type belonging to the Fc alpha receptor subgroup, which is called FcαRI (CD89).
Fc gamma receptor can be sorted as high-affinity receptor FcγRI (CD64) and low-affinity receptor FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16). The three classes of Fc gamma receptor contain highly conserved extracellular Ig domains.
Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR) is the Fc receptor that binding IgE. There are two classes of FcεRs on cells of the immune system. The high-affinity receptor, FcεRI, which is capable of binding monomeric IgE. The low-affinity receptor, FcεRII (CD23), which interacts preferentially with complex IgE.
|Receptor name||CD name||Alias||Function|
|FcγRI||CD64||FCGR1, FCGR1A||Innate and adaptive immune responses|
|FcγRIIA||CD32||FCG2, FCGR2A1, FCGR2||Regulation of B-cell function. Induces phagocytosis and mediator release.|
|FcγRIIB1||CD32a||FCGR2A, Fc gamma RIIA||Innate and adaptive immune responses|
|FcγRIIB2||CD32b||FCGR2B, Fc gamma RIIB||Phagocytosis of immune complexes and regulation of antibody production|
|FcγRIIIA||CD16a||FCGR3A, FCG3, FCGR3, IGFR3||Low affinity Fc receptor. Mediates phagocytosis and antibody-dependent T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity|
|FcγRIIIB||CD16b||FCGR3B, FCG3, FCGR3, IGFR3||Low affinity Fc receptor|
|FcεRII||CD23||BLAST-2, FCER2, CLEC4J||Low affinity receptor for IgE, ligand for CD19, CD21 and CD81. Key molecule for B-cell activation and growth|
|FcαRI||CD89||FcαR, FCAR||IgA Fc receptor|
|Fcα/μR||CD351||FCAMR||Fc receptor that binds IgM with high affinity and IgA with a 10-fold lower affinity|
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