Clusters of differentiation of FC receptor

What is FC receptor

Fc receptor is a antibody receptor involved in antigen recognition which is located at the membrane of certain immune cells including B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells. Such receptors recognize Fc fragment of antibodies and that is the name of Fc receptor derived from. Fc receptors binding to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens contributes to the protective functions of the immune system.Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

There are several types of Fc receptors dpending on the kind of antibody that they recognize. Fc receptors recognizing fc portion of IgG is called Fc gamma receptor (FcγR). Fc receptor recognizing C-terminal of IgA is called Fc alapha receptor (FcαR). Fc receptor recognizing C-terminal of IgE is called Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR).

Fc alpha receptor (FcαR) is the receptor specific for IgA which binds IgA with low affinity. There is only one type belonging to the Fc alpha receptor subgroup, which is called FcαRI (CD89).

Fc gamma receptor can be sorted as high-affinity receptor FcγRI (CD64) and low-affinity receptor FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16). The three classes of Fc gamma receptor contain highly conserved extracellular Ig domains.

Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR) is the Fc receptor that binding IgE. There are two classes of FcεRs on cells of the immune system. The high-affinity receptor, FcεRI, which is capable of binding monomeric IgE. The low-affinity receptor, FcεRII (CD23), which interacts preferentially with complex IgE.

Clusters of differentiation chart of FC receptor

Receptor name CD name Alias Function
FcγRI CD64 FCGR1, FCGR1A Innate and adaptive immune responses
FcγRIIA CD32 FCG2, FCGR2A1, FCGR2 Regulation of B-cell function. Induces phagocytosis and mediator release.
FcγRIIB1 CD32a FCGR2A, Fc gamma RIIA Innate and adaptive immune responses
FcγRIIB2 CD32b FCGR2B, Fc gamma RIIB Phagocytosis of immune complexes and regulation of antibody production
FcγRIIIA CD16a FCGR3A, FCG3, FCGR3, IGFR3 Low affinity Fc receptor. Mediates phagocytosis and antibody-dependent T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity
FcγRIIIB CD16b FCGR3B, FCG3, FCGR3, IGFR3 Low affinity Fc receptor
FcεRII CD23 BLAST-2, FCER2, CLEC4J Low affinity receptor for IgE, ligand for CD19, CD21 and CD81. Key molecule for B-cell activation and growth
FcαRI CD89 FcαR, FCAR IgA Fc receptor
Fcα/μR CD351 FCAMR Fc receptor that binds IgM with high affinity and IgA with a 10-fold lower affinity

Clusters of differentiation chart of FC receptor References

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