BMP-2: A Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor (Cytokine)

Overall Introduction of BMP-2 Growth Factor

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily implicated by gene ablation studies in several critical processes in early mouse development. BMP-2 plays an essential role not only in embryonic stem cell differentiation, but also in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation.

BMP-2 Effects on Embryonic Stem (ES) cells Differentiation

Studies of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro adduced evidence for a critical role for BMP-2 in the differentiation of extra-embryonic endoderm, and in the cavitation of the embryo, the process whereby programmed cell death in a subpopulation of the pluripotent stem cells of the inner cell mass leads to the formation of the egg cylinder. This study further showed that BMP-2 transcripts were expressed in the extra-embryonic endoderm, a finding that has recently been confirmed in a study which defined a role for this molecule in the induction of primordial germ cells.
A screen for factors affecting growth and differentiation of human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells revealed that BMP-2 induced differentiation of the cells into a flattened, epithelial squamous cell displaying an immunophenotype and gene expression profile similar to extra-embryonic endoderm.
Cells that morphologically resemble the flat epithelial cells induced in human EC cultures by BMP-2 also appear spontaneously in human embryonic stem cultures grown under standard conditions

BMP-2 Effects on Hematopoietic Stem (ES) cells

Gene therapy studies show that bone defects are healed by the implantation of a bioresorbable polymer mixed with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to which adenovirus BMP-2 is transferred. Systemic administration of rhBMP-2 increases mesenchymal stem cell activity and reverses ovariectomy-induced and age-related bone loss in two different mouse models. These results suggest that BMP-2 may be utilized for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent studies show that rhBMP-2 delivered in an injectable formula with a calcium phosphate carrier or with a liposome carrier accelerates bone healing in a rabbit ulna osteotomy model and a rat femoral bone defect model. Recent clinical studies show that rhBMP-2 can be used as complete bone graft substitutes in spinal fusion surgery. In some circumstances, the efficacy of BMP-2 for inducing successful fusion is superior to that of autogenous bone graft. BMP-2 is shown to be efficacious in several fusion applications, including intervertebral and lumbar posterolateral fusion.

BMP-2: A Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor (Cytokine)-Reference

• Beederman M, et al. BMP signaling in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation[J]. Journal of biomedical science and engineering, 2013, 6(8A): 32.
• Pera M F, et al. Regulation of human embryonic stem cell differentiation by BMP-2 and its antagonist noggin[J]. J Cell Sci, 2004, 117(7): 1269-1280.