Hematopoietic stem cell therapy growth factors (cytokines) are responsible for the regulation of the multiple fates of hematopoietic stem cells – including quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation, apoptosis, and mobilization from the niche – requires the cooperative actions of several growth factors and other hormones that bind to receptors on these cells. Many hematopoietic stem cell therapy growth factors (cytokines) were identified and purified on the basis of their abilities to support in-vitro formation of hematopoietic colonies from progenitors; the functions of many of these cytokines and their receptors were confirmed and extended through studies of genetically modified mice. hematopoietic stem cells reside in ‘stem cell niches’ in the bone marrow and in other tissues; stromal cells are thought to synthesize many hematopoietic stem cell therapy growth factors but, in general, we know little about which cells in a niche make specific cytokines. Many cell culture experiments have shown that hematopoietic stem cells respond to multiple growth factors and that the fate of an hematopoietic stem cell – self renewal, apoptosis, mobilization from the niche, formation of differentiated progeny cells – depends on multiple growth factors, adhesion proteins, and other signals produced by stromal cells and likely other cells in the body.
Here we list numerous growth factors & cytokines which passess regulation ability on hematopoietic stem cells and give detailed information for the vital growth factors. The related cytokine proteins, antibodies, genes and ELISA kits in research usage are also available here.
The human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) is a glycoprotein, which served as a key modulation factor of primitive hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. It was also demonstrated that IL-3 enhances human osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.
Stem cell factor (SCF, also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor that exists both as a membrane-bound and soluble form. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival, and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, melanocytes, and germ cells.
IL-6 was originally identified as a T cell-derived factor, which induced the final maturation of B lymphocytes into antibody-forming plasma cells. IL-6 functions neural stem/progenitor cells by binding to the soluble form of IL-6R and then bind directly to the gp130 receptor.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic stem cells. It was also identifeid as a neuronal growth factor in the brain and a factor involved in arteriogenesis after brain ischemia.
LIF is capable of maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state through promoting self-renewal or suppressing stem cell differentiation. It has become a standard protocol to use LIF to maintain murine embryonic stem cell pluripotency, whereas withdrawal of LIF allows embryonic stem cells to undergo cell differentiation
The ability to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood of G-CSF changes the face of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It was among the first growth factors to be identified and rapidly transitioned into clinical medicine.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein that regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. In addition, Erythropoietin (EPO) was reportedly to mediates the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of non-hematopoietic cells through the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR).
Flt3-Ligand has an effect on early B cell development as well as on T cell development, at least in the embryo. It was shown that intracellular Flt3 receptors have been found to exist in human mesenchymal stem cells and expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells is highly dependant on the time, duration and concentration of Flt3-Ligand.
TPO augmented survival and proliferation of CD34+ haematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, especially when used in combination with IL3 or SCF. TPO also plays a role in haematopoietic stem cell maintenance in humans. TPO can augment ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic stem cells to increase the pool available for transplantation
M-CSF acts on hematopoiesis by promoting the growth of monocyte/macrophage colonies from human blood CD34+ progenitor cells and high proliferation colony-forming cells.. It was also shown that M-CSF can directly induce the myeloid master regulator PU.1 and instruct myeloid cell-fate change
FGF-2 is expressed mostly in tissues of mesoderm and neuroectoderm origin, and is thought to play an important role in the mesoderm induction. In recent years, a number of studies have identified fibroblast growth factors FGF-2 as key regulator of a variety of stem cell types.
In most cell types, TGF-beta signaling additionally controls the expression of a plethora of homeostatic genes whose activity determines cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, paracrine factor secretion, cell–cell contacts, immune function, and tissue repair.
VEGF has the role of cellular survival during bone and cartilage development. In contrast to the paracrine functions of VEGF in vascular development and angiogenesis, the survival of endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells and tumor cells has been linked to intracrine/autocrine functions of VEGF.
BMP4 belong to the transformation growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. is involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of stem cells, including Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, hematopoieti Stem (ES) cells, Mesenchymal Stem (ES) cells and Neural Stem (ES) cells. So BMP4 play an essential role in stem cell therapy.
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily implicated by gene ablation studies in several critical processes in early
mouse development. BMP-2 plays an essential role not only in embryonic stem cell differentiation, but also in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation.
• Singh G, Korkaya H. Cytokine regulation of stem cells[R]. PeerJ Preprints, 2016.
• Zhang C C et al. Cytokines regulating hematopoietic stem cell function[J]. Current opinion in hematology, 2008, 15(4): 307.