Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which can be isolated from human and animal sources. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineage such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are numerically the most favored cell type presently under clinical trial with a big potential in stem cell therapy. Like many developing cells, the state of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is affected by the surrounding microenvironment, and mimicking this natural microenvironment that supports multipotent or differentiated state in vivo is essential to lead to the successful use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in stem cell therapies. Many researchers are, therefore, optimizing cell culture conditions in vitro by altering growth factors, extracellular matrices, chemicals, oxygen tension, and surrounding pH to enhance stem cells self-renewal or differentiation. Growth factors (Cytokines) regulate mesenchymal stem cell functions more than any other molecule and they play an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, or other properties of mesenchymal stem cells, either alone or in combination of other growth factors (cytokines).
Here we list the vital growth factors & cytokines which possess regulation ability on mesenchymal stem cells. The related cytokine proteins, antibodies, genes and ELISA kits in research usage are also available here.
The human interleukin-3 (hIL-3) is a glycoprotein, which served as a key modulation factor of primitive hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. It was also demonstrated that IL-3 enhances human osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in both in vitro and in vivo conditions
Stem cell factor (SCF, also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor that exists both as a membrane-bound and soluble form. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival, and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, melanocytes, and germ cells.
IL-6 was originally identified as a T cell-derived factor, which induced the final maturation of B lymphocytes into antibody-forming plasma cells. IL-6 functions neural stem/progenitor cells by binding to the soluble form of IL-6R and then bind directly to the gp130 receptor.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic stem cells. It was also identifeid as a neuronal growth factor in the brain and a factor involved in arteriogenesis after brain ischemia.
LIF is capable of maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state through promoting self-renewal or suppressing stem cell differentiation. It has become a standard protocol to use LIF to maintain murine embryonic stem cell pluripotency, whereas withdrawal of LIF allows embryonic stem cells to undergo cell differentiation
The ability to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood of G-CSF changes the face of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It was among the first growth factors to be identified and rapidly transitioned into clinical medicine.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein that regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. In addition, Erythropoietin (EPO) was reportedly to mediates the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of non-hematopoietic cells through the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR).
Flt3-Ligand has an effect on early B cell development as well as on T cell development, at least in the embryo. It was shown that intracellular Flt3 receptors have been found to exist in human mesenchymal stem cells and expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells is highly dependant on the time, duration and concentration of Flt3-Ligand.
FGF-2 is expressed mostly in tissues of mesoderm and neuroectoderm origin, and is thought to play an important role in the mesoderm induction. In recent years, a number of studies have identified fibroblast growth factors FGF-2 as key regulator of a variety of stem cell types.
In most cell types, TGF-beta signaling additionally controls the expression of a plethora of homeostatic genes whose activity determines cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, paracrine factor secretion, cell–cell contacts, immune function, and tissue repair.
VEGF has the role of cellular survival during bone and cartilage development. In contrast to the paracrine functions of VEGF in vascular development and angiogenesis, the survival of endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells and tumor cells has been linked to intracrine/autocrine functions of VEGF.
BMP4 belong to the transformation growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. is involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of stem cells, including Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, hematopoieti Stem (ES) cells, Mesenchymal Stem (ES) cells and Neural Stem (ES) cells. So BMP4 play an essential role in stem cell therapy.
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily implicated by gene ablation studies in several critical processes in early mouse development. BMP-2 plays an essential role not only in embryonic stem cell differentiation, but also in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation.
• Ullah I, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective. Bioscience Reports. 2015;35(2):e00191.
• Singh G, et al. Cytokine regulation of stem cells[R]. PeerJ Preprints, 2016.