Human Coronavirus

are positive sense, single stranded RNA viruses. There are seven types of coronaviruses known to infect humans. Patients infected with these viruses develop respiratory symptoms of various severity. HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, the two coronaviruses discovered in early years, cause common cold. The other five coronaviruses lead to more severe respiratory tract infection, which can potentially be lethal. Since 2000, there have been three major world-wide health crisis caused by coronaviruses, the 2003 SARS outbreak, the 2012 MERS outbreak, and the 2019 COVID-19 outbreak. Thousands of people died during these epidemics, while surprisingly no vaccine, treatment, or diagnostic has been established. The outbreak of COVID-19 is yet another wake-up call for the biomedical community to make serious efforts to understand the biology of these viruses, and find ways to prevent and treat the infections.
To support the fight against the coronavirus, Sino Biological has developed a comprehensive panel of recombinant viral antigens, including key proteins from all known human coronaviruses.
Types Genera Disease
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Betacoronavirus Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
SARS-CoV Betacoronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), mortality rate 9%
MERS-CoV Betacoronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome(MERS), mortality rate >30%
HCoV-HKU1 Betacoronavirus Mild respiratory disease
HCoV-NL63 Alphacoronavirus Mild respiratory disease
HCoV-OC43 Betacoronavirus Mild respiratory disease
HCoV-229E Alphacoronavirus Mild respiratory disease

Recombinant Proteins


Coronavirus Antigen Detection Kit

Coronavirus Antigen Array

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All coronaviruses share very similar structures. The viral genome encodes several proteins of unique functions, including Spike protein, N protein, HE protein, papain-like proteases, and M protein. The two antigens of main pharmaceutical interest are the S (spike) protein and the N protein. The N (nucleocapsid) protein is often conserved, which can be used as a diagnostic marker. The Spike protein is mainly responsible for receptor binding, and is a common target for vaccines and antibodies.

The spike protein is particular important as its interaction with the host cell receptor is the pivotal step during the infection. Different viruses may utilize different surface receptor for binding. The HCOV- NL63, SARS-COV, and the new SARS-COV-2 viruses all use the ACE2 receptor, while the MERS-COV virus selectively binds with the DPP4 receptor. The HCOV-229E virus targets APN receptor. The rest two common coronavirus, HKU1 and OC43 bind with O-ac Sia.
(More antigens: orf3, orf5, orf4a, orf4b)


• Ref: Anthony R. Fehr and Stanley Perlman.Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis.Methods Mol Biol. 2015;
• R.J.G. Hulswit.Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes.Advances in Virus Research.2016;
• YUDONG YIN AND RICHARD G. WUNDERINK.MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia.Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.2017
• Xintian Xu.Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission.SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences.2020